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OpenCL Game of Life

 

Introduction

For this tutorial we will cover two different OpenCL versions of our GOL program. The first will strictly use global memory and be a straight forward GPU port of our program, the second we will introduce local(shared) memory. Each program will be separated into two files, one containing C code and another containing the device kernels. Basic OpenCL concepts covered in the vector addition sample will not be covered in detail here for brevity. A description of the game of life and the original CPU code please see here. The full source can be viewed or download at the OLCF GitHub. Please direct any questions or comments to help@nccs.gov

GOL.c

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <CL/opencl.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

#define SRAND_VALUE 1985
#define LOCAL_SIZE 16

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    int i,j,iter;
    int *h_grid;
    cl_mem d_grid;
    cl_mem d_newGrid;
    cl_mem d_tmpGrid;

    // Linear game grid dimension
    int dim = 1024;
    // Number of game iterations
    int maxIter = 1<<10;

    // Size, in bytes, of each vector
    size_t bytes = sizeof(int)*(dim+2)*(dim+2);

    // Allocate host Grid used for initial setup and read back from device
    h_grid = (int*)malloc(bytes);

    cl_platform_id cpPlatform;        // OpenCL platform
    cl_device_id device_id;           // device ID
    cl_context context;               // context
    cl_command_queue queue;           // command queue
    cl_program program;               // program
    //Kernels
    cl_kernel k_gol, k_ghostRows, k_ghostCols;

    // Assign initial population randomly
    srand(SRAND_VALUE);
    for(i = 1; i<=dim; i++) {
        for(j = 1; j<=dim; j++) {
            h_grid[i*(dim+2)+j] = rand() % 2;
        }
    }

   cl_int err;

    // Bind to platform
    err = clGetPlatformIDs(1, &cpPlatform, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf( "Error: Failed to find a platform\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Get ID for the device
    err = clGetDeviceIDs(cpPlatform, CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU, 1, &device_id, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
        printf("Error: Failed to create a device group\n");
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create a context
    context = clCreateContext(0, 1, &device_id, NULL, NULL, &err);
    if (!context) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create a compute context\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create a command queue
    queue = clCreateCommandQueue(context, device_id, 0, &err);
    if (!queue) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create a command commands\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the compute program from the kernel source file
    char *fileName = "GOL-kernels.cl";
    FILE *fh = fopen(fileName, "r");
    if(!fh) {
        printf("Error: Failed to open file\n");
        return 0;
    }
    struct stat statbuf;
    stat(fileName, &statbuf);
    char *kernelSource = (char *) malloc(statbuf.st_size + 1);
    fread(kernelSource, statbuf.st_size, 1, fh);
    kernelSource[statbuf.st_size] = '\0';
    program = clCreateProgramWithSource(context, 1,
                            (const char **) & kernelSource, NULL, &err);
    if (!program) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create compute program\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Build the program executable
    err = clBuildProgram(program, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to build program executable %d\n", err);
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the GOL kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_gol = clCreateKernel(program, "GOL", &err);
    if (!k_gol || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create GOL kernel \n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the ghostRows kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_ghostRows = clCreateKernel(program, "ghostRows", &err);
    if (!k_ghostRows || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create ghostRows kernel\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the ghostCols kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_ghostCols = clCreateKernel(program, "ghostCols", &err);
    if (!k_ghostCols || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create ghostCols kernel\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the input and output arrays in device memory for our calculation
    d_grid = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, bytes, NULL, NULL);
    d_newGrid = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, bytes, NULL, NULL);
    if (!d_grid || !d_newGrid) {
      printf("Error: Failed to allocate device memory\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Write our data set into the input array in device memory
    err = clEnqueueWriteBuffer(queue, d_grid, CL_TRUE, 0,
                                   bytes, h_grid, 0, NULL, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to write to source array\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to GOL  kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to ghostRows kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to ghostCols kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set kernel local and global sizes
    size_t cpyRowsGlobalSize, cpyColsGlobalSize, cpyLocalSize;
    cpyLocalSize = LOCAL_SIZE;
    // Number of total work items - localSize must be devisor
    cpyRowsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil(dim/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;
    cpyColsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil((dim+2)/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;

    size_t GolLocalSize[2] = {LOCAL_SIZE, LOCAL_SIZE};
    size_t linGlobal = (size_t)ceil(dim/(float)LOCAL_SIZE)*LOCAL_SIZE;
    size_t GolGlobalSize[2] = {linGlobal, linGlobal};

    // Main game loop
    for (iter = 0; iter<maxIter; iter++) {
        err = clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostRows, 1, NULL, &cpyRowsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);
        err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostCols, 1, NULL, &cpyColsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);
        err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_gol, 2, NULL, GolGlobalSize, GolLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);

        if(iter%2 == 1) {
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
        } else {
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
        }
    }// End main game loop

    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
       printf("Error: Failed to launch kernels%d\n",err);
       return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Wait for the command queue to get serviced before reading back results
    clFinish(queue);

    // Read the results from the device
    err =  clEnqueueReadBuffer(queue, d_grid, CL_TRUE, 0,
                        bytes, h_grid, 0, NULL, NULL );
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to read output array\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;;
    }

    // Sum up alive cells and print results
    int total = 0;
    for (i = 1; i<=dim; i++) {
        for (j = 1; j<=dim; j++) {
            total += h_grid[i*(dim+2)+j];
        }
    }
    printf("Total Alive: %d\n", total);

    // Release memory
    free(h_grid);

    return 0;
}

Changes

// Create the compute program from the kernel source file
char *fileName = "GOL-kernels.cl";
FILE *fh = fopen(fileName, "r");
if(!fh) {
    printf("Error: Failed to open file\n");
    return 0;
}
struct stat statbuf;
stat(fileName, &statbuf);
char *kernelSource = (char *) malloc(statbuf.st_size + 1);
fread(kernelSource, statbuf.st_size, 1, fh);
kernelSource[statbuf.st_size] = '\0';
program = clCreateProgramWithSource(context, 1,
                                    (const char **) & kernelSource, NULL, &err);
if (!program) {
    printf("Error: Failed to create compute program\n");
    return EXIT_FAILURE;
}

For more complicated kernels it is not reasonable to enter them as a char string in our c source file. Here we will read in the contents of GOL-kernels.cl which as we will see contains 3 OpenCL kernels.

// Set kernel local and global sizes
size_t cpyRowsGlobalSize, cpyColsGlobalSize, cpyLocalSize;
cpyLocalSize = LOCAL_SIZE;
// Number of total work items - localSize must be devisor
cpyRowsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil(dim/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;
cpyColsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil((dim+2)/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;

The copy kernels use a linear work group size. The cpyLocalSize must be a devisor of the cpy*GlobalSize and so we calculate the smallest integer that covers our problem domain and is divisible by cpyLocalSize.

size_t GolLocalSize[2] = {LOCAL_SIZE, LOCAL_SIZE};
size_t linGlobal = (size_t)ceil(dim/(float)LOCAL_SIZE)*LOCAL_SIZE;
size_t GolGlobalSize[2] = {linGlobal, linGlobal};

For the GOL kernel we specify a two dimensional work group size to better suite the problems geometry. The necessary global size is then be calculated.

// Main game loop
for (iter = 0; iter<maxIter; iter++) {
    err = clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostRows, 1, NULL, &cpyRowsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                 0, NULL, NULL);
    err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostCols, 1, NULL, &cpyColsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                  0, NULL, NULL);
    err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_gol, 2, NULL, GolGlobalSize, GolLocalSize,
                                  0, NULL, NULL);
    
    if(iter%2 == 1) {
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
    } else {
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
        err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    }
}// End main game loop

OpenCL handles memory in terms of buffers, not pointers, so we are unable to preform a simple pointer swap. The process is relatively straight forward however as the argument order can be switched with a simple conditional statement inside of the main game loop.

GOL-kernels.cl

__kernel void ghostRows(const int dim,
                        __global *grid)
{
    // We want id to range from 1 to dim
    int id = get_global_id(0) + 1;

    if (id <= dim)
    {
        grid[(dim+2)*(dim+1)+id] = grid[(dim+2)+id]; //Copy first real row to bottom ghost row
        grid[id] = grid[(dim+2)*dim + id]; //Copy last real row to top ghost row
    }
}

__kernel void ghostCols(const int dim,
                        __global *grid)
{
    // We want id to range from 0 to dim+1
    int id = get_global_id(0);

    if (id <= dim+1)
    {
        grid[id*(dim+2)+dim+1] = grid[id*(dim+2)+1]; //Copy first real column to right most ghost column
        grid[id*(dim+2)] = grid[id*(dim+2) + dim]; //Copy last real column to left most ghost column
    }
}

__kernel void GOL(const int dim,
                  __global int *grid,
                  __global int *newGrid)
{
    int ix = get_global_id(0) + 1;
    int iy = get_global_id(1) + 1;
    int id = iy * (dim+2) + ix;

    int numNeighbors;

    if (iy <= dim && ix <= dim) {

    // Get the number of neighbors for a given grid point
    numNeighbors = grid[id+(dim+2)] + grid[id-(dim+2)] //upper lower
                 + grid[id+1] + grid[id-1]             //right left
                 + grid[id+(dim+3)] + grid[id-(dim+3)] //diagonals
                 + grid[id-(dim+1)] + grid[id+(dim+1)];

    int cell = grid[id];
    // Here we have explicitly all of the game rules
    if (cell == 1 && numNeighbors < 2)
        newGrid[id] = 0;
    else if (cell == 1 && (numNeighbors == 2 || numNeighbors == 3))
        newGrid[id] = 1;
    else if (cell == 1 && numNeighbors > 3)
        newGrid[id] = 0;
    else if (cell == 0 && numNeighbors == 3)
        newGrid[id] = 1;
    else
        newGrid[id] = cell;
    }
}

GOL-Local.c

In the first example each work item read nine values from global memory and wrote back one value. The inefficiency of this approach is that each value that is read from global memory is used not only in calculating its own new value but also by its eight closest neighbors in calculating their new value. Although some global memory access penalties have been alleviated in the latest generation of cards with the addition of an L2 cache you will find local memory is still an incredibly important aspect of GPU programming. Local memory provides a very fast memory space(comparable to register access) that is shared between work items of the same work-group. In the case where multiple work items in a particular work-group are accessing the same global memory item local memory may be used to reduce the number of global memory calls. A typical use for local memory is as follows:

  1. Have each work item read from global memory into local memory
  2. Synchronize work items to ensure all items in a given work-group have finished reading from global memory
  3. Have each work item preform calculations using local memory values
  4. Have each work item write result from local memory back to device global memory
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <CL/opencl.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>

#define SRAND_VALUE 1985
#define LOCAL_SIZE 16

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
{
    int i,j,iter;
    int *h_grid;
    cl_mem d_grid;
    cl_mem d_newGrid;
    cl_mem d_tmpGrid;

    // Linear game grid dimension
    int dim = 1024;
    // Number of game iterations
    int maxIter = 1<<10;

    // Size, in bytes, of each vector
    size_t bytes = sizeof(int)*(dim+2)*(dim+2);

    // Allocate host Grid used for initial setup and read back from device
    h_grid = (int*)malloc(bytes);

    cl_platform_id cpPlatform;        // OpenCL platform
    cl_device_id device_id;           // device ID
    cl_context context;               // context
    cl_command_queue queue;           // command queue
    cl_program program;               // program
    //Kernels
    cl_kernel k_gol, k_ghostRows, k_ghostCols;

    // Assign initial population randomly
    srand(SRAND_VALUE);
    for(i = 1; i<=dim; i++) {
        for(j = 1; j<=dim; j++) {
            h_grid[i*(dim+2)+j] = rand() % 2;
        }
    }

   cl_int err;

    // Bind to platform
    err = clGetPlatformIDs(1, &cpPlatform, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf( "Error: Failed to find a platform\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Get ID for the device
    err = clGetDeviceIDs(cpPlatform, CL_DEVICE_TYPE_GPU, 1, &device_id, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
        printf("Error: Failed to create a device group\n");
        return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create a context
    context = clCreateContext(0, 1, &device_id, NULL, NULL, &err);
    if (!context) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create a compute context\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create a command queue
    queue = clCreateCommandQueue(context, device_id, 0, &err);
    if (!queue) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create a command commands\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the compute program from the kernel source file
    char *fileName = "GOL-kernels.cl";
    FILE *fh = fopen(fileName, "r");
    if(!fh) {
        printf("Error: Failed to open file\n");
        return 0;
    }
    struct stat statbuf;
    stat(fileName, &statbuf);
    char *kernelSource = (char *) malloc(statbuf.st_size + 1);
    fread(kernelSource, statbuf.st_size, 1, fh);
    kernelSource[statbuf.st_size] = '\0';
    program = clCreateProgramWithSource(context, 1,
                            (const char **) & kernelSource, NULL, &err);
    if (!program) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create compute program\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Build the program executable
    err = clBuildProgram(program, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to build program executable %d\n", err);
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the GOL kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_gol = clCreateKernel(program, "GOL", &err);
    if (!k_gol || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create GOL kernel\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the ghostRows kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_ghostRows = clCreateKernel(program, "ghostRows", &err);
    if (!k_ghostRows || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create ghostRows kernel\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the ghostCols kernel in the program we wish to run
    k_ghostCols = clCreateKernel(program, "ghostCols", &err);
    if (!k_ghostCols || err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to create ghostCols kernel\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Create the input and output arrays in device memory for our calculation
    d_grid = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, bytes, NULL, NULL);
    d_newGrid = clCreateBuffer(context, CL_MEM_READ_WRITE, bytes, NULL, NULL);
    if (!d_grid || !d_newGrid) {
      printf("Error: Failed to allocate device memory\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Write our data set into the input array in device memory
    err = clEnqueueWriteBuffer(queue, d_grid, CL_TRUE, 0,
                                   bytes, h_grid, 0, NULL, NULL);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to write to source array\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to GOL  kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to ghostRows kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set the arguments to ghostCols kernel
    err  = clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 0, sizeof(int), &dim);
    err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to set kernel arguments\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Set kernel local and global sizes
    size_t cpyRowsGlobalSize, cpyColsGlobalSize, cpyLocalSize;
    cpyLocalSize = LOCAL_SIZE;
    // Number of total work items - localSize must be devisor
    cpyRowsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil(dim/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;
    cpyColsGlobalSize = (size_t)ceil((dim+2)/(float)cpyLocalSize)*cpyLocalSize;

    size_t GolLocalSize[2] = {LOCAL_SIZE, LOCAL_SIZE};
    size_t linGlobal = (size_t)ceil(ceil(dim/(float)(LOCAL_SIZE-2))*(LOCAL_SIZE-2)/LOCAL_SIZE)*LOCAL_SIZE;
    size_t GolGlobalSize[2] = {linGlobal, linGlobal};

    // Main game loop
    for (iter = 0; iter<maxIter; iter++) {
        err = clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostRows, 1, NULL, &cpyRowsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);
        err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_ghostCols, 1, NULL, &cpyColsGlobalSize, &cpyLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);
        err |= clEnqueueNDRangeKernel(queue, k_gol, 2, NULL, GolGlobalSize, GolLocalSize,
                                                              0, NULL, NULL);

        if(iter%2 == 1) {
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
        } else {
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostRows, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_ghostCols, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 1, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_newGrid);
            err |= clSetKernelArg(k_gol, 2, sizeof(cl_mem), &d_grid);
        }
    }// End main game loop

    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
       printf("Error: Failed to launch kernels%d\n",err);
       return EXIT_FAILURE;
    }

    // Wait for the command queue to get serviced before reading back results
    clFinish(queue);

    // Read the results from the device
    err =  clEnqueueReadBuffer(queue, d_grid, CL_TRUE, 0,
                        bytes, h_grid, 0, NULL, NULL );
    if (err != CL_SUCCESS) {
      printf("Error: Failed to read output array\n");
      return EXIT_FAILURE;;
    }

    // Sum up alive cells and print results
    int total = 0;
    for (i = 1; i<=dim; i++) {
        for (j = 1; j<=dim; j++) {
            total += h_grid[i*(dim+2)+j];
        }
    }
    printf("Total Alive: %d\n", total);

    // Release memory
    free(h_grid);

    return 0;
}

GOL-local-kernels.cl

#define LOCAL_SIZE_x 16
#define LOCAL_SIZE_y 16

__kernel void ghostRows(const int dim,
                        __global int *grid)
{
    // We want id to range from 1 to dim
    int id = get_global_id(0) + 1;

    if (id <= dim)
    {
        grid[(dim+2)*(dim+1)+id] = grid[(dim+2)+id]; //Copy first real row to bottom ghost row
        grid[id] = grid[(dim+2)*dim + id]; //Copy last real row to top ghost row
    }
}

__kernel void ghostCols(const int dim,
                        __global int *grid)
{
    // We want id to range from 0 to dim+1
    int id = get_global_id(0);

    if (id <= dim+1)
    {
        grid[id*(dim+2)+dim+1] = grid[id*(dim+2)+1]; //Copy first real column to right most ghost column
        grid[id*(dim+2)] = grid[id*(dim+2) + dim]; //Copy last real column to left most ghost column
    }
}

__kernel void GOL(const int dim,
                  __global int *grid,
                  __global int *newGrid)
{
    int ix = (get_local_size(0)-2) * get_group_id(0) + get_local_id(0);
    int iy = (get_local_size(1)-2) * get_group_id(1) + get_local_id(1);
    int id = iy * (dim+2) + ix;

    int i = get_local_id(0);
    int j = get_local_id(1);
    int numNeighbors;

    // Declare the local memory on a per work group level
    __local int s_grid[LOCAL_SIZE_y][LOCAL_SIZE_x];

    // Copy cells into local memory
    if (ix <= dim+1 && iy <= dim+1)
        s_grid[i][j] = grid[id];

    //Sync all work items in work group
    barrier(CLK_LOCAL_MEM_FENCE);

    if (iy <= dim && ix <= dim) {
        if(i != 0 && i !=LOCAL_SIZE_y-1 && j != 0 && j !=LOCAL_SIZE_x-1) {

            // Get the number of neighbors for a given grid point
            numNeighbors = s_grid[i+1][j] + s_grid[i-1][j] //upper lower
                         + s_grid[i][j+1] + s_grid[i][j-1] //right left
                         + s_grid[i+1][j+1] + s_grid[i-1][j-1] //diagonals
                         + s_grid[i-1][j+1] + s_grid[i+1][j-1];

             int cell = s_grid[i][j];

             // Here we have explicitly all of the game rules
             if (cell == 1 && numNeighbors < 2)
                 newGrid[id] = 0;
             else if (cell == 1 && (numNeighbors == 2 || numNeighbors == 3))
                 newGrid[id] = 1;
             else if (cell == 1 && numNeighbors > 3)
                 newGrid[id] = 0;
             else if (cell == 0 && numNeighbors == 3)
                 newGrid[id] = 1;
             else
                 newGrid[id] = cell;
        }
    }
}

Changes

    // Declare the local memory on a per work group level
    __local int s_grid[LOCAL_SIZE_y][LOCAL_SIZE_x];

The __local qualifier is used in the device kernel to allocate local memory arrays. The specified size is on a per work-group basis.

// Copy cells into local memory
if (ix <= dim+1 && iy <= dim+1)
    s_grid[i][j] = grid[id];

Each work item that is within the bounds of our work group size, including ghost cells, will read one value from global memory into local memory.

//Sync all threads in work group
barrier(CLK_LOCAL_MEM_FENCE);

Before we use any local memory we need to ensure that each work item in the work-group has finished reading its value from global memory into local memory by using a barrier, in this case the barrier is a work-group level barrier. When all work-items in a given work-group have reached the barrier execution will commence.

if (iy <= dim && ix <= dim) {
    if(i != 0 && i !=LOCAL_SIZE_y-1 && j != 0 && j !=LOCAL_SIZE_x-1) {

Before calculating our new values we must check that our global work item id’s, iy and ix, are do not extend into, or past, the ghost cells. Local work item id’s, i and j, must be checked so that no calculations are preformed in the per work-group ghost cells.

            // Get the number of neighbors for a given grid point
            numNeighbors = s_grid[i+1][j] + s_grid[i-1][j] //upper lower
                         + s_grid[i][j+1] + s_grid[i][j-1] //right left
                         + s_grid[i+1][j+1] + s_grid[i-1][j-1] //diagonals
                         + s_grid[i-1][j+1] + s_grid[i+1][j-1];
 
             int cell = s_grid[i][j];

The standard GOL calculations are preformed only now we are reading all cell values from local memory instead of global memory.